世界にはどんな教育哲学者がいるのか。
世界的に有名な主な哲学者
al-Ghazali(Islamic Philosophy)
Dewey & Confucius →ここ
Paulo Freire Pedagogy of the Oppressedi
Philosophy of Indigenous Education
Horace Mann
John Locke

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Bonnie, M. (2010, April 30). Two key theories in education: Confucius and John Dewey. Academia. https://www.academia.edu/1120169/Two_Key_Theories_in_Education_Confucius_and_John_Dewey---
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孔子とデューイ!?
L なんで?
mirror one another in philosophies. 
on issues of morality beliefs. 

Dewey(Sim, 2009)
- nature of government is best founded on democracy
- empower individuals in setting their own direction and adapt to changes in social structure.
- see confucianism as restrictive towards "growth and development" 
- multiple social relations are prerequiste to human development 

Confucianism(Sim, 2009)
- follow a fixed structure
- hierarchy of responsibilities 
- rule by a {virtuous emperor")
- place emphasis on harmony (attitude and intention) toward heaven
- view Dewey as "filled with petty cncerns regardeing money and economics, self-absorbed in "self-reconstruction"

孔子
- established content and methods of teaching - conce
- established concept of how people should relate to one another. 

taught "filial piety(Five Relationships)"
- hierarchy of relationships from the national level to the household and community. 
- allegiance and respect between king-minister
- father-son
- husband- wife
- older brother- younger brother
- friend- friend

Defined "Five Virtue"
- benevolence(generosity)
- righteousness (doing the right things) 
- propriety (behaving correctly in society) 
- knowledge (learning)
- sincerity(genuineness) 

"what you do not like done to you, do not do to others"
ruler must be virtuous and strive to better peoples' lives. 

”virtue is obtaind through education" Xunzi

デューイ
1919年と1921年に訪中
その際、デューイは”Western Confucius"と言われた。
- teachers should consider themselves learners. 

Educational traditions are deeply rooted in clutlure. 

1919年から2年間と2ヶ月、デューイは日本と中国を行き来して数々の講演を行った。


(感想)
Philosophy of Confusion and Dewey does not seem to coinside. For example, confusion values a fixed social structure while Dewey sees social structure as always changing to be better. Confusion values hierarchy with a virtuous leader who strive to make people's lives better, while Dewey values equity. Philosophical root of confusion is collectivism, where as philosopers who focused on individualism such as John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the root of Dewey's philosophy. Confusion emphasise harmony whild Dewey emphasize on self- realization. 
These differences seem to make it difficult to find similarities between the two philosophies; however, what was interesting was that Peng(2007) states that they do not contradict. This is because Confucius valued collectivism in a sense that it provides interepersonal relationships that seeks"human unity"(p.238). Whereass, Dewey valued "cooperation" in response to the problems that individualism holds. Hence, Confusion philosophy and Dewey's philosophy do not oppose to eachother, but are just on the other sides of the coin. Both share the same philosophy that values both individualism and collectivism. 







参考文献

Peng, H. (2007). A Conversation between Confucius and Dewey on Individual and Community- A Hope for Human Unity. TRACE: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. PhD diss. https://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1316&context=utk_graddiss
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Sim, May (2009). Dewey and Confucius: On moral education. Journal of Chinese Philosophy: Special Issue on Chinese Philosophy and American Pragmatism, 36(1), 3-8 & 85-105. Retrieved from サントリー 山崎 シングルモルト ウイスキー700ml 箱なし×4本http://college.holycross.edu/faculty/msim/#resea



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